Read this hub to know about the essential minerals that are needed by your body for optimum health and vitality...
What are minerals?Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in minute amounts for growth, repair and regulation of body functions.
Classification of minerals:
1. Major minerals: Present in the body in large amounts and their daily requirement in man to maintain optimum nutrition is appreciable. A few examples are, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+.
2. Minor elements: Also known as trace elements. They are required by the body in amounts less than few milligrams per day. A few examples are Iron, Iodine, Copper, Cobalt, Zinc, Fluorine, Molybdenum, Selenium, Chromium, Tin, Nickel, and Manganese.
Functions of minerals:
1.Formation of bones and teeth
2.Contraction of muscles
3.Transmission of nerve impulse
4.Specific functions like formation of thyroid hormones by iodine
5.Maintenance of osmotic pressure of fluids.
Sources of zinc:
Liver, lamb, wholegrain cereals, oat meals, nuts, legumes.
Daily requirement of zinc:
15mg in adults
Functions of zinc:
1. It is an essential component of enzymes like carbonic anhydrase, alcohol dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase).
2. Required for insulin synthesis by the pancreas.
3. Improves the immune system.
4. Helps in wound healing and cell growth.
Effects of zinc deficiency on the body:
1. Loss of taste
2. Growth retardation
3. Delayed wound healing
4. Multiple infection
5. Sexual infantilism
Causes of zinc deficiency:
1. Lack of animal food
2. High dietary phytate content
3. Inadequate food intake, e.g. anorexia nervosa
4. Increased loss during diarrhea, nephritic syndrome, burn
5. Chronic febrile illness
Sources of sodium:
Almost all foods and cooking salt.
Daily requirement of sodium:
10-15 gm for adults.
Function of sodium:
1. Generation and transmission of nerve impulse
2. Maintenance of resting membrane potential
3. Maintenance of osmotic pressure in blood and other fluids
Deficiency of sodium causes:
1. Muscle cramps,
2. Generalized weakness
3. Dyspnoea on exertion
Sources of iodine:
A. Natural source:
I. BEST SOURCES:
a) Sea foods like sea fish, sea salt
b) Drinking water
II. OTHER SOURCES:
B. Artificial source:
Daily requirements of iodine:
150 µg of iodine in case of adult, 100µg of iodine in case of children.
Functions of iodine:
1. Formation of thyroid hormones T3 and T4.
2. Normal growth, development and wellbeing.
Deficiency disorders of iodine:
|Iodine deficiency disorders|
The effects of iodine deficiency are:
1. Hypothyroidism: Includes myxoedema, goiter in adults and cretinism in children.
2. Physical and mental retardation
3. Increased frequency of abortion and stillbirth
What is Endemic Goiter?
When goiter occurs in a significant number (more than 10% of the population) of people in a defined geographic area, it is known as endemic goiter.
It usually occurs in areas like the Andes, Himalayas, Central Africa , South East Asia.
Source of calcium:
A. Mainly animal sources like:
Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, egg, fish
B. Vegetable source:
Green leafy vegetable, cereals, fruits
Daily requirements of calcium:
Adult – 400-500 mg
Function of calcium:
1. Formation of bone and teeth
2. Coagulation of blood
3. Milk production
4. Contraction of muscle
Effects of calcium deficiency:
3. Decreased growth.
Source of iron:
A. Animal source (haem iron):
Liver, meat, milk, fish
B. Plant source (non-haem iron):
Green leafy vegetables, cereals, nuts, fruits
Daily requirement of iron:
Infants and children-20-25mg
Adult female- 32 mg
Pregnancy- 40 mg
Function of iron:
1. Production of haemoglobin.
2. Transport of oxygen and cell respiration.
3. Production of myoglobin, cytochrome, catalase and other enzymes.
Effects of iron deficiency of iron:
1. Iron deficiency anaemia.